POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Zevachim 22
ZEVACHIM 21-23 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and
prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE VESSELS THAT QUALIFY FOR "KIDUSH"
(a) (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): If the Kiyor does not contain
enough water to Mekadesh four Kohanim, it is invalid -
"V'Rachatzu Mimenu Moshe v'Aharon u'Vanav".
2) WHICH WATER MAY BE USED FOR THE "KIYOR"?
(b) Question (Beraisa): One may Mekadesh from any Kli Shares,
whether or not it contains a Revi'is of water!
(c) Version #1 - Rashi - Answer (Rav Ada bar Acha): The case
is, the Kli Shares was carved into the Kiyor (so the
water comes from the Kiyor, which contains enough water
(to Mekadesh four Kohanim)).
(d) Version #2 - Tosfos - Answer (Rav Ada bar Acha): The case
is, water was scooped into the Kli Shares from the Kiyor
(so the water comes from a vessel (the Kiyor), which
contains enough water).
(e) Question: But it says "Mimenu" (Rashi - we must Mekadesh
from the Kiyor, not other vessels; Tosfos - we must
Mekadesh from the Kiyor or a vessel like it, i.e. that
contains enough water)!
(f) Answer: "Yirchetzu" comes to include other Klei Shares
(Tosfos - that do not have the proper amount, as long as
the water was taken from a vessel with the proper
(g) Question: If so, we should also include Chulin vessels!
(h) Answer #1 (Abaye): A Kal va'Chomer excludes them:
1. The base of the Kiyor was anointed (with anointing
oil), yet one may not Mekadesh from it - a Chulin
vessel was not anointed at all, all the more so one
may not Mekadesh from it!
(i) Objection (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Mari): We cannot learn
from the base, which it is not meant to hold anything, to
Chulin vessels which are made to hold things!
2. Question: What is the source that one may not
Mekadesh from the base?
3. Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): One might have
thought that one may Mekadesh from the base, just
like from the Kiyor itself - "Kiyor Nechoshes
v'Chano Nechoshes" - the base is equated to the
Kiyor only regarding that both are made of copper.
(j) Answer #2: "Mimenu" excludes Chulin vessels.
(k) Question: If so, we should also exclude other Klei
(l) Answer: "Yirchetzu" includes other Klei Shares.
(m) Question: Why do we include Klei Shares and exclude
Chulin vessels, and not vice-versa?
(n) Answer: Klei Shares must be anointed, like the Kiyor,
Chulin vessels need not be.
(a) (Reish Lakish): Anything that (if added to Mikveh water)
can complete the required 40 Sa'im can complete the
quantity needed for Kidush (i.e. enough to wash four
Kohanim), it does not complete a Revi'is (Rashi, Tosfos -
needed to wash before eating; Ra'avad - for a Mikveh to
(b) Question: What is an example?
1. Suggestion: Soft mud (completes a Mikveh).
(c) Answer #1: Small bugs in water (complete a Mikveh).
2. Question: What is the case?
i. If a cow will bend and drink it - it completes
ii. If a cow will not bend and drink it - it does
not complete a Mikveh!
(d) Rejection: Even an entire Mikveh may be made of such bugs
(if ground up)!
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): One may immerse
in anything that originates from water.
(e) Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Various liquids (including fruit
juice) can complete the quantity for a Mikveh if they are
added to a complete Mikveh and then the same quantity is
2. (R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): One may immerse in the eye
of a big fish (after it dissolves).
1. (Mishnah): If a Mikveh had exactly 40 Sa'im, and a
Se'ah (of another liquid) was added and a Se'ah was
removed, it is Kosher.
(f) Version #1 - Rashi - (Rav Papa): If a vessel holding a
Revi'is was carved into the wall of a Mikveh, needles (or
other small vessels) may be immersed in it, because its
water came from a proper Mikveh.
2. (Rav Yehudah bar Shila): This may be repeated until
the majority of the Mikveh is other liquids.
(g) Version #2 - Tosfos - (Rav Papa): If a Revi'is of water
was scooped into a vessel from a Mikveh, needles may be
immersed in it, because its water came from a proper
(h) (R. Yirmeyah): Mikveh water may be used for the Kiyor.
(i) Question: This implies that running water is not needed,
but a Beraisa require running water!
1. (Beraisa): "(The innards of an Olah are rinsed)
Ba'Mayim" - not in wine, nor mixed wine; (another
verse says) "Ba'Mayim" - this includes other water,
and Kal va'Chomer water of the Kiyor.
2. Question: What is this Kal va'Chomer?
i. Suggestion: Water of the Kiyor must be running
3. Answer #1: No, rather, water of the Kiyor is Kodesh.
4. Objection: That is no reason to be fit for rinsing
i. (D'vei R. Shmuel): (The innards of an Olah are
rinsed with) water that has no accompanying
name - this excludes water of the Kiyor.
3) AN "AREL" IS "MECHALEL AVODAH"
5. Answer #2: Water of the Kiyor must be running water.
(j) Answer: Tana'im argue whether or not running water is
required; R. Yirmeyah holds like the Tana that does not
1. (R. Yochanan): R. Yishmael says that spring water is
used for the Kiyor, Chachamim say that other water
(a) (Mishnah): An Arel (someone not circumcised) is Mechalel
4) "TEME'IM" ARE "MECHALEL AVODAH"
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer (Rav Chisda): No verse of Chumash teaches this, a
verse of Yechezkeil alludes to it - "Kol Ben Nechar Erel
Lev v'Erel Basar Lo Yavo El Mikdashi".
(d) Question: This teaches that he may not enter the Mikdash
- how do we know that he is Mechalel Avodah?
(e) Answer: "Lechalel Es Beisi".
(f) (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "Ben Nechar" literally
refers to a Nochri!
(g) Rejection: If so, it would not be need to say "Erel Lev
(an uncircumcised heart, i.e. a Rasha)".
(h) Question: Since it must say "Erel Lev", why does it say
(i) Answer: This teaches that his deeds are Nisnachru
(estranged) from Hash-m.
(j) Question: What is the source of a (standard) Arel (i.e.
his foreskin was not removed)?
(k) Answer: "V'Erel Basar".
(l) The Torah must teach both.
1. If it only taught Arel Baser, one might have
thought, this is because he is despised (on account
of his foreskin), but Arel Lev would not be Mechalel
2. If it only taught Arel Lev, one might have thought,
this is because he does not act l'Shem Hash-m, but
an Arel Basar acts l'Shem Hash-m, he would not be
(a) (Mishnah): A Tamei (is Mechalel Avodah).
(b) (Ziknei Darom (Chachamim of the south)): This only refers
to one who is Tamei Sheretz (became Tamei through a
rodent), but one who is Tamei Mes is not Mechalel Avodah.
(We do not refer to a Tamei Mes on the seventh day of
Taharah, since (if he completes his Taharah) he will be
fully Tahor at night, he is like a Tamei Sheretz.)
1. Since Tum'as Mes is permitted in Korbanos Tzibur
(e.g. if most of Yisrael are Tamei Mes, they offer
and eat Korban Pesach in Tum'ah) l'Chatchilah, if a
Tamei Mes Kohen offered even a Korban Yachid, it is
(c) Question: What do Ziknei Darom hold regarding offering
the Korban (Pesach) of Teme'im?
2. Version #1 (Rashi) Question: A Kal va'Chomer should
teach that Tum'as Sheretz is permitted in Korbanos
i. Taharah from Tum'as Mes requires Haza'ah
(sprinkling of water with ashes of the Parah
Adumah) on days three and seven, yet Tum'as Mes
is permitted in Korbanos Tzibur - Taharah from
Tum'as Sheretz does not require Haza'ah, all
the more so it is permitted!
3. Version #2 (R. Tam) Question: A Kal va'Chomer should
teach that if a Tamei Sheretz offered even a Korban
Yachid, it is Kosher!
i. Taharah from Tum'as Mes requires Haza'ah on
days three and seven, yet a Tamei Mes does not
Mechalel Avodah - Taharah from Tum'as Sheretz
does not require Haza'ah, all the more so
Avodah of a Tamei Sheretz is Kosher! (End of
4. Answer: Ziknei Darom hold that Kohanim, who effect
atonement (through Zerikah), have the same law as
those who get atonement (the owners of the Korbanos)
- just as only Tum'as Mes is permitted to the
owners, also to Kohanim.
1. If they say that we do not offer the Korban of a
Tamei Sheretz, Tum'as Sheretz should be permitted to
(d) Answer: They must say that we offer the Korban (Pesach)
of someone who is Tamei Sheretz (since if he immerses
during the day, at night he will be fully Tahor and able
to eat it).
i. Any Tum'ah (which does not emanate from a
person's body) which forces an individual to
wait until Pesach Sheni, if (most of) the
Tzibur has that Tum'ah, they offer (on the
(e) Question (Reish Lakish): The Torah permits Tum'ah for the
owners more than for the Kohanim!
1. An owner who is Tamei Sheretz can send his Korban
(offer it through a Shali'ach), but a Tamei Sheretz
Kohen is Mechalel Avodah;
(f) Answer: Ziknei Darom hold that a Tamei Mes *can* send his
Korban (even though he will not be able to eat it).
2. An owner who is Tamei Mes cannot send his Korban
(Pesach, since he will not be Tahor at night to eat
it), all the more so a Tamei Mes Kohen is Mechalel