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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Zevachim 37

ZEVACHIM 36-40 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff


(a) (Gemara - Beraisa #1) Question: What is the source that one Zerikah on the outer Mizbe'ach is Mechaper?
(b) Answer: "V'Dam Zevachecha *Yishafech*" - (this connotes one putting).
(c) Question: This verse teaches something else!
1. (Beraisa) Question: What is the source that leftover blood of all Korbanos is poured on the Yesod?
2. Answer: "V'Dam Zevachecha Yishafech".
(d) Answer: Our Tana (i.e. of Beraisa #1) learns that as Rebbi does.
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): The Torah explicitly taught that extra blood of a Chatas is poured on the Yesod;
2. Question: What is the source regarding other Korbanos?
3. Answer: "Veha'Nish'ar *ba'Dam* Yimatze".
(e) Question: Still, "V'Dam Zevachecha..." teaches something else!
1. (Beraisa): Question: What is the source that Shefichas (pouring) blood on the Mizbe'ach is Mechaper, even when the Torah said to Zorek (throw) it?
2. Answer: "V'Dam Zevachecha Yishafech".
(f) Answer: Our Tana holds like R. Akiva, who says that pouring is not considered Zerikah, and Zerikah is not considered pouring.
1. (Mishnah - R. Yishmael): If one blessed for the Mitzvah of eating Korban Pesach, he need not bless for eating the Zevach (a Shelamim eaten with Pesach); if he blessed for the Zevach, he must also bless for the Pesach.
i. (We are thinking that this is because the Torah requires Shefichah for Pesach, and Shefichah is valid for Shelamim, regarding which it says Zerikah, but Zerikah is not valid for Pesach.)
2. R. Akiva says, neither blessing exempts the other Korban.
(g) Question: Still, "V'Dam..." teaches something else!
1. (Beraisa #2 - R. Yishmael): "Ach Bechor Shor (...Damam Tizrok...)" teaches that one must put the blood and Eimurim of a Bechor on the Mizbe'ach;
i. Question: What is the source for Ma'aser (Behemah) and Pesach?
ii. Answer: "V'Dam Zevachecha Yishafech".
(h) Answer: Our Tana holds like R. Yosi ha'Galili, who learns this from a different verse.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Galili): It does not say 'Damo' and 'Cheblo', rather, "Damam" and "Chelbam" (plural, *their* blood and Chalavim) - this teaches that the blood and Eimurim of Ma'aser and Pesach is put on the Mizbe'ach.
(i) Question: In Beraisa #2, R. Yishmael used "V'Dam Zevachecha..." to teach about Ma'aser and Pesach - in the Mishnah, he (presumably) uses it to teach that pouring is considered Zerikah!
(j) Answer: The Tana'im of the Mishnah and Beraisa argue about his opinion.
(k) Question: R. Yishmael says (in Beraisa #2) that "Ach Bechor..." teaches only about Bechoros - we understand the next verse, "U'Vsaram Yihyeh Lach " (they are given to Kohanim);
1. But R. Yosi says that the verse also alludes to Ma'aser and Pesach - these are eaten by the owners!
(l) Answer: R. Yosi explains that the plural ("U'Vsar*am*") teaches that Bechor is given to a Kohen whether it is Tam or Ba'al Mum;

1. We have no other source for this (Rashi; Tosfos - we never find that a Ba'al Mum is given to a Kohen).
2. R. Yishmael learns this from the end of the verse, "Lecha Yihyeh"
(m) R. Yosi says that the verse also applies to Ma'aser and Pesach, so "Lo Sifdeh Kodesh Hem" teaches that they are offered, Temuros of them are not.
1. (Mishnah): Temurah of a Bechor or Ma'aser, or descendants of one of these (for any number of generations) is like Bechor and Ma'aser - the owner eats it like Chulin after it gets a Mum;
2. (Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): Sometimes Temurah of a Pesach is offered, sometimes it is not - I do not know when it is offered.
(n) Question: R. Yishmael says that the verse only discusses Bechor - what is his source that Temuros of Ma'aser and Pesach are not offered?
(o) Answer - part 1: He learns Ma'aser from a Gezerah Shavah "Avarah-Avarah" from Bechor;
(p) Answer - part 2: Verses teach about Pesach:
1. "Im Kesev" - this includes Temuras Pesach, it is offered after Pesach.
2. Suggestion: Perhaps it is offered even before Pesach!
3. Rejection: "Hu" (Pesach is offered, not its Temurah).
(q) Several Tana'im expounded "V'Dam Zevachecha..." differently - what is their source that one Zerikah of blood on the Mizbe'ach is Mechaper?
(r) Answer: They hold like Beis Hillel, who say that one Zerikah suffices for Chatas (as we will learn soon), and learn other Korbanos from Chatas.
(a) (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Two Zerikos of the blood of a Chatas are Mechaper.
(b) (Rav Huna): Beis Shamai learn from the three times it says (to put blood on the) "Keranos" (top corners of the Mizbe'ach);
1. Each is pronounced Keranos (plural, teaching two), a total of six;
2. Since there are only four Keranos, the extra two teach that two Zerikos are Me'akev.
(c) Question: What is Beis Hillel's reason?
(d) Answer #1: Beis Hillel expound Mesores (according to the way words are written) - two of the three 'Keranos' are written without a 'Vov', suggesting Keranas (singular), therefore, the total is four;
1. One Zerikah is Me'akev, the other three are l'Chatchilah.
2. Question: Why not say that all four are only l'Chatchilah?
3. Answer: We never find that a Korban is acceptable without any Zerikah.
(e) Answer #2: Beis Hillel consider both Mesores and Mikra (the way words are pronounced);
1. We do not learn only four, for the Mikra suggests six;
2. We do not learn six, for the Mesores suggests only four;
3. (We consider it as if five are written - there are only four Keranos, the extra one teaches that one Zerikah is Me'akev.)
(f) Question: If so, Beis Hillel should similarly expound "Totafos (Tefilin)", two are written without a 'Vov', one with a Vov;
1. They should require five compartments in the head Tefilin!
(g) Answer: They hold like R. Akiva, who say that the word itself means four:
1. 'Tat' means two in Katfi (a language), 'Fos' means two in Afriki.
(h) Question: Beis Hillel should similarly expound "Sukos", two are written without a 'Vov', one with a Vov;
1. They should require five walls in a Sukah!
(i) Answer: One of them is needed for context (and is not expounded), one teaches about the Sechach, three teach about walls;
1. A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches that one of the three walls can be as small as a Tefach (if positioned properly).
(j) Question: It says that a Yoledes Nekevah will be Teme'ah "Shevu'ayim (two weeks)" - Beis Hillel should also expound the Mesores (without a 'Vov', suggesting 'Shiv'im (70)'), and we should take the average of these, 42 days!
(k) Answer: It says "K'Nidasah" (Rashi - it is close to the seven days of Nidah, therefore we do not expound that way; Tosfos - her Tum'ah is like the (seven) days of Nidah more than the (seven) days of Yoledes Zachar).
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