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Zevachim 53

ZEVACHIM 53 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) (Mishnah): The following apply to (outer) Chata'os of the Tzibur (i.e. the goat brought every day of the festivals and Rosh Chodesh) or a commoner:
1. They are slaughtered in Tzafon, Kabalah must be in a Kli Shares in Tzafon;
2. The blood must be put on each of the four Keranos:
i. The Kohen ascends the ramp and walks (counterclockwise) on the Sovev (the walkway around the Mizbe'ach half-way up the Mizbe'ach), putting on each Keren when he comes to it, i.e. southeast, northeast, northwest and southwest;
3. He pours the Shirayim on the Yesod in the south;
4. Male Kohanim eat the meat within the hangings (of the Mishkan -this corresponds to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash), (raw or) cooked in any way, that day and until half the following night.
(b) (Gemara) Question: How is blood put on a Keren?
(c) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan or R. Elazar): He puts blood on one of the (two) outer faces of the Keren, i.e. within an Amah of the (outermost) edge;
(d) Answer #2 (The other of R. Yochanan and R. Elazar): He puts it along the (outermost) edge from the top down (until the Sovev).
(e) R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says that blood is put only on the Keren itself - clearly, this is like Answer #1;
(f) Rebbi permits putting blood below the Keren, as long as it is above the Sovev - this could be like either answer:
1. Answer #1 allows putting the blood within an Amah of the edge (within an Amah of the edge is considered like the Keren) - Rebbi could permit this even below the Keren;
2. Answer #2 requires putting the blood of the edge, for only the edge is called 'Keren'.
(g) Question (against Answer #1 - Beraisa): To do Matanos Dam of (outer) Chata'os of the Tzibur or of a commoner, the Kohen ascends the ramp and walks on the Sovev to the southeast Keren;
1. He immerses his right index finger in the blood in the bucket, and uses his thumb and pinky to constrict the blood so all will go on the edge, until all the blood from his finger is finished;
2. He does the same on every Keren.
(h) Answer: The first opinion means that he *may* put the blood within an Amah of the edge, he admits that it is best to put it on the edge.
(a) Question: What is the argument of Rebbi and R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon?
(b) Answer (Beraisa): Upper blood (i.e. that should be put on the top of the Mizbe'ach) must be put above Chut ha'Sikra, lower blood must be put below Chut ha'Sikra;
(c) R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, the first clause is correct regarding Olas ha'Of, but blood of Chatas Behemah must be put on the Keranos.
(d) (R. Avahu): Rebbi learns from "Veha'Har'el (the Mizbe'ach) Arba Amos ume'Ha'ari'el u'Lmalah ha'Keranos Arba".
1. Objection: The Mizbe'ach is more than four Amos (it is 10 Amos tall, and 32 Amos square)!
2. Answer (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The Keranos occupy four Amos on each side of the Mizbe'ach.
3. Objection: They do not (there are two Keranos on each side, each occupies one Amah)!
4. Correction: Rather, the four Amos (from the top of the Keren down to the Sovev) are considered like the Keren.
(e) (Mishnah): A red string (the Chut ha'Sikra) girds the Mizbe'ach in the middle, to distinguish between (the place for) upper and lower blood.
(f) Question: What is the source of this?
(g) Answer (Rav Acha bar Rav Katina): "V'Haysah ha'Reshes Ad Chetzi ha'Mizbe'ach" - there must be a Mechitzah to distinguish between upper and lower blood.
(h) (Mishnah): The Shirayim...
(i) (Beraisa): (Shirayim of outer Chata'os are poured) "El Yesod ha'Mizbe'ach" - the southern Yesod;
1. Question: Perhaps it refers to the western Yesod - we learn what is unspecified (outer Chata'os) from the explicit (inner Chata'os - there it says "Pesach Ohel Mo'ed")!
2. Answer: (Indeed, we learn from inner Chata'os, but differently -) just as Shirayim of inner Chata'os are poured on the first Yesod encountered (after leaving the Heichal), Shirayim of outer Chata'os are poured on the first Yesod encountered (after descending from the ramp).
(j) (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Shirayim of inner and outer Chata'os are poured on the western Yesod;
(k) R. Shimon ben Yochai says, both are poured on the southern Yesod.
(l) Question: We understand R. Yishmael - he learns the unspecified from the explicit;
1. What is R. Shimon's reason?
(m) Version #1 - Answer (R. Asi): He holds that the entire Mizbe'ach is north (of the opening to the Heichal; alternatively, in the north half of the Azarah, the south end corresponds to the middle of the opening);
(n) Version #2 - Answer (R. Asi): He holds that the entire opening to the Heichal is south of the Mizbe'ach; (end of Version #2)
1. (One who leaves the Heichal (in the middle of the opening) encounters the southern side.)

(o) Version #1 - our text, Rashi - (Beraisa - Talmidim of R. Yishmael): R. Shimon agrees that both are poured on the western Yesod;
1. A way to remember this - the many (Talmidim) convinced the individual (R. Shimon) to retract.
(p) Version #2 - Tosfos - (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): Both are poured on the southern Yesod.
1. A way to remember this - the many (R. Shimon bar Yochai, who is called by his own name and his father's) convinced the individual (R. Yishmael) to retract.
(a) (Mishnah): Olah is Kodshei Kodoshim, it is slaughtered in Tzafon, Kabalah must be in a Kli Shares in Tzafon;
(b) The blood must be thrown twice (or on two Keranos), which is effectively four Zerikos (this will be explained);
(c) It must be flayed and dissected, it is Kalil (entirely burned on the Altar).
(d) (Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah mention that Olah is Kodshei Kodoshim?
(e) Answer: It must teach this because the Torah does not explicitly say that it is.
(f) (Mishnah): The blood must be thrown twice...
(g) Question: How is this done?
(h) Answer #1 (Rav): The Kohen puts on one outer face (of a Keren), then on the other outer face (and then similarly for the opposite Keren);
(i) Answer #2 (Shmuel): He throws the blood once (on each of two opposite Keranos) at the edge, it flows on both sides, like a (Greek) Gamma (an L shape).
(j) Tana'im argue as Rav and Shmuel argue.
1. (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps we do only one Zerikah (of Dam Olah).
2. Rejection: "Saviv" (the blood must go all around, i.e. on every side).
3. Suggestion: Perhaps we draw a line of blood all around (with the finger)!
4. Rejection: "V'Zarak";
i. Conclusion: He throws the blood on the edge (of two opposite Keranos), it flows on both sides, like a Gamma.
5. R. Yishmael says, it says "Saviv", like it says regarding Chatas:
i. Just as four distinct Matanos are done for Chatas, also regarding Olah.
6. Suggestion: Perhaps Matanos must be done on each of the four Keranos, similar to Chatas!
7. Rejection: This cannot be, for all Zerikos of Olah must be above the Yesod, and the southeast corner does not have a Yesod.
8. Question: Why doesn't it have a Yesod?
9. Answer (R. Elazar): This is because that place (where the Yesod would be if there was one) was not in the portion of Binyamin (rather, in Yehudah's portion; the (primary parts of the) Mizbe'ach must be in Binyamin's portion).
i. (Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): The Mizbe'ach occupied an Amah of Yehudah's portion.
ii. (R. Levi bar Chama): A strip of land extended from Yehudah's portion into Binyamin's, Binyamin (himself) was pained that his Shevet did not receive it (Maharsha - in order that the entire Mizbe'ach would have a Yesod) - "Chofef Alav Kol ha'Yom".
iii. Therefore, Binyamin merited to become the host of Hash-m - "U'Vein Keseifav Shachen". (The order of events is difficult. Perhaps this means, Hash-m knew that Binyamin would feel more pain over this than any other Shevet, therefore he merited... Iyun Yakov - because Binyamin was pained, Hash-m made Binyamin His permanent host.)
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