POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Zevachim 97
ZEVACHIM 97-98 - Dedicated to the leaders and participants in the Dafyomi
shiurim at the Young Israel of New Rochelle, by Andy & Nancy Neff
1) WHEN IS MERIKAH U'SHTIFAH DONE?
(a) (Mishnah - R. Tarfon): If one cooked Kodshim in a pot at
the beginning of the festival, he may cook in it the
entire festival (without Merikah u'Shtifah)
2) WHAT ARE MERIKAH AND SHTIFAH?
(b) Chachamim say, until the (some texts - the entire) time
the Kodshim are eaten (this will be explained.)
(c) Merikah u'Shtifah - Merikah is like rinsing a cup (from
the inside), Shtifah is like rinsing a cup (from the
(d) Merikah (some texts - is in hot water,) and Shtifah are
(is) in cold water.
(e) A spit or grill is Kashered in hot water.
(f) (Gemara) Question: What is R. Tarfon's reason?
(g) Answer #1: "U'fanisa va'Boker v'Halachta l'Ohalecha" -
the Torah considers all the days of the festival to be
(h) Objection (Rav Achdevoy bar Ami): If so, Pigul and Nosar
would not apply during the festival!
1. Suggestion: Perhaps this is true!
(i) Answer #2: R. Tarfon holds like Rav Nachman:
2. Rejection (Beraisa - R. Noson): R. Tarfon's law only
applies to Merikah u'Shtifah.
1. (Rav Nachman): Cooking Kodshim in a pot purges the
pot from absorptions of the previous day's Kodshim
(before they become forbidden).
(j) (Mishnah - Chachamim): Until the time the Kodshim are
(k) Question: What does this mean?
(l) Answer (Rav Nachman): He waits until they are eaten
(Bartenura; Rambam - until the last time they are
permitted; Tosfos - he waits the entire time they are
permitted), and then does Merikah u'Shtifah.
(m) Question: What is the source of this?
(n) Answer (R. Yochanan) Question: Right after "U'Morak
v'Shutaf", it says "Kol Zachar ba'Kohanim Yochal" - why
are these adjacent to each other?
1. Answer: This teaches that Merikah u'Shtifah is after
waiting (until) the time they are (or may be) eaten.
(a) (Mishnah): Merikah is like rinsing a cup (from the
inside), Shtifah is like rinsing a cup (from the
3) ABSORPTIONS OF KODSHIM
(b) (Beraisa - Rebbi): Merikah and Shtifah are in cold water;
(c) Chachamim say, Merikah is in hot water, and Shtifah is in
(d) Question: What is Chachamim's reason?
(e) Answer: We find that hot water was needed to Kasher
vessels of Nochrim (i.e. after the war with Midyan.)
(f) Rebbi agrees that Kashering requires hot water - Merikah
u'Shtifah is after this.
1. Chachamim say, if cold water is used for both, the
Torah should have used the same word twice, i.e.
'Morak Murak' or Shotaf Shutaf';
2. The Torah used different words to teach that they
are different, Merikah is in hot water, Shtifah is
in cold water.
3. Rebbi says, had the Torah used the same word twice,
we would have thought that the same action is done
i. It used different words to teach that they are
different, Merikah is from the inside, Shtifah
is from the outside.
(a) (Mishnah): If Kodshim and Chulin were cooked in the same
pot, or Kodshei Kodoshim and Kodshim Kalim:
1. If it (the more severe Kedushah) is Nosen Ta'am
(gives taste, in the lighter Kedushah), the lighter
is eaten like the more severe;
(b) If a wafer touched a wafer, or a piece (of meat) touched
a piece, it does not forbid all of them, only the place
2. Merikah u'Shtifah is not required, it does not Posel
anything it touches (these will be explained.)
(c) (Gemara) Question: What does this mean?
(d) Answer (Text of Bartenura - the Mishnah is abbreviated,
it means as follows):
1. If it is Nosen Ta'am, the lighter is eaten like the
more severe, Merikah u'Shtifah is required, it is
Posel anything it touches;
(e) Question: (When Kodshei Kodoshim were not Nosen Ta'am to
Kodshim Kalim) granted, the Kodshim Kalim do not need
Merikah u'Shtifah like (i.e. according to the time of)
Kodshei Kodoshim, but Merikah u'Shtifah is required like
2. If it is not Nosen Ta'am, the lighter is not eaten
like the more severe, Merikah u'Shtifah is not
required, it is not Posel what it touches.
(f) Answer #1 (Abaye): Indeed, the Mishnah means, Merikah
u'Shtifah like Kodshei Kodoshim is not required, Merikah
u'Shtifah like Kodshim Kalim is required.
(g) Answer #2 (Rava): The Mishnah is R. Shimon, who says that
Kodshim Kalim do not require Merikah u'Shtifah.
(h) Question: We understand according to Rava why the Mishnah
also teaches about cooking different Kodshim together (in
order that a Stam Mishnah will be like R. Shimon);
1. According to Abaye, what do we learn from this?
(i) Answer: We must teach both cases
1. If we only taught Kodshim and Chulin, one might have
thought that Chulin can Mevatel Kodshim, for they
are not Mino, but different kinds of Kodshim cannot
Mevatel each other;
(j) If we only taught Kodshei Kodoshim and Kodshim Kalim, one
might have thought that only Kodshim have the strength to
Mevatel Kodshim, but Chulin cannot Mevatel Kodshim.
(k) (Mishnah): If a wafer touched a wafer (or a piece (of
meat) touched a piece...)
(l) (Beraisa) Suggestion: "Kol Asher Yiga" - perhaps it
becomes forbidden even if it did not absorb!
1. Rejection: "Bi'Vsarah" - only if taste was absorbed
into the meat.
4) KODSHEI KODOSHIM ARE EQUATED TO EACH OTHER
2. Suggestion: Perhaps if it touched part of a piece,
the entire piece is forbidden!
(m) "Bi'Vsarah" - touching sinews, bones, horns or hooves
does not forbid;
3. Rejection: "Yiga" - only what touched is forbidden;
i. The part that absorbed is cut off (and the rest
(n) "Yikdash" - what touches Kodshim becomes like the
1. If the Kodshim is Pasul, the touched food is Pasul;
if the Kodshim is Kosher, the touched food is eaten
with the stringencies of the Kodshim.
(o) Question: If Kodshim became forbidden by touching Pasul
Kodshim, the Mitzvas Ase to eat Kodshim should override
the Lav (of eating (something that absorbed) Pasul
(p) Answer #1 (Rava): An Ase does not override a Lav
pertaining to the Mikdash:
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Menasiya): "V'Etzem Lo
Sishberu Vo" - bones (of Korban Pesach) with or
without marrow may not be broken.
(q) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): "Yikdash" is an Ase (to treat what
touches Kodshim like the Kodshim, eating food that
absorbed Pasul Kodshim violates this Ase) - the Ase to
eat Kodshim does not override a Lav and an Ase.
2. Question: (To eat marrow, one must break the bone -)
the Ase to eat the meat (which includes marrow)
should override the Lav!
3. Answer: This teaches that an Ase does not override a
Lav of the Mikdash.
(a) Question: The verse teaches about food that touched
Chatas - what is the source if it touched other Kodshim?
(b) Answer #1 (Shmuel citing R. Eliezer): "Zos ha'Torah
la'Olah la'Minchah vela'Chatas vela'Asham vela'Milu'im
ul'Zevach ha'Shelamim" (all these Korbanos are equated to
(c) (The answer is really below (f), the Gemara explains R.
Eliezer's teaching in order.)
(d) "La'Olah" - all are like Olah, a Kli (Shares) is
1. Question: Which Kli is required?
(e) "La'Minchah" - are all like Minchah, which is only eaten
by male Kohanim.
i. Suggestion: A Mizrak (bucket) is required for
2. Answer: A knife is required for slaughter.
ii. Rejection: We would not need a Hekesh to Olah
for this, we could learn from "Ul'Zevach
ha'Shelamim", which refers to Shalmei Tzibur
(the entire verse discusses Kodshei Kodoshim),
we know that a Kli is needed for them -
"Va'Yikach Moshe Chatzi ha'Dam va'Yasem
3. Question: What is the source for this?
4. Answer: "Vayishlach Avraham Es Yado va'Yikach Es
ha'Ma'acheles" -he used the knife for an Olah,
"Va'Ya'alehu l'Olah Tachas Beno".
1. Question: Which of them must be learned from
(f) "Vela'Chatas" - are all like Chatas, whose absorptions
i. Suggestion: We learn Chatas and Asham from
2. Answer: We learn Shalmei Tzibur from Minchah.
ii. Rejection: It explicitly says about Chatas and
Asham "Kol Zachar ba'Kohanim Yochalenu"!
3. Question: A different verse teaches this!
i. "B'Kodesh ha'Kodoshim Tochalenu Kol Zachar
Yochal Oso" - this teaches that only male
Kohanim may eat Shalmei Tzibur.
4. Answer: R. Eliezer learns from the Hekesh to
Minchah, other Tana'im learn from that verse.