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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Zevachim 25

ZEVACHIM 24-25 - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for the Torah and for those who study it.



(a) Rava learns three 'Gezeirah-Shavahs' ... , from "Yad" "Regel" and "Ozen". These three words are written - in connection with the purification ceremony of a Metzora Ashir.

(b) What all three have in common is - the fact that the Torah writes 'Yemanis' by each one.

(c) The first 'Gezeirah-Shavah' concerns "Yad" (by Kemitzah). We learn ...

1. ... ''Regel'' from Metzora Ashir - that Chalitzah must be performed on the right foot.
2. ... ''Ozen'' from Metzora Ashir - that if an Eved Ivri wants to remain after his initial six-year period, it is his right ear that must be pierced.
(d) In spite of Rebbi Yochanan's D'rashah of "Kehunah" (which we just cited) - we need the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Yad" "Yad", one for the actual Kemitzah, the other, for the Kidush Kometz (which must also be performed with the right hand).
(a) According to one opinion in Menachos, Rebbi Shimon does not require Kidush Kometz at all. Even those who disagree with that however, hold - that, according to him, 'Kidush Kometz bi'Semol, Kasher', because it is no better than Kabalas Dam, which Rebbi Shimon validates with the left-hand.

(b) Rebbi Shimon cannot invalidate Kemitzah bi'Semol from "Kehunah" (like Rebbi Yochanan) - because he requires "Etzba", as we learned on the previous Amud.

(a) The Torah writes (in connection with the Minchah) "Kodesh Kodshim Hi, ka'Chatas ve'che'Asham". Rebbi Yehudah b'rei de'Rebbi Chiya, explaining Rebbi Shimon, learns from the Torah's comparison of a Minchah to ...
1. ... a Chatas - that if the Kohen comes to bring it with his hands, he must use his right hand (like the Haza'ah of a Chatas).
2. ... an Asham - that if he wants to use a K'li Shareis, then he may use his left hand (like the Zerikah of an Asham).
(b) We learn from there that, according to Rebbi Shimon, the Kemitzah requires the right hand - because it can only be performed by hand, and is therefore compared to Chatas, as we just explained.

(c) We nevertheless need the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of Rava - to teach us that even the Kemitzah of a sinner's Minchah requires the Kohen's right hand.

(d) We might well have thought that his Kemitzah would be Kasher even with the left hand - because, of Rebbi Shimon, who explains that the Minchah of a sinner does not contain oil and frankincense, in order not to beautify it. Maybe, by the same token, the Kemitzah should be performed with the left hand.

(a) Our Mishnah rules - that if the blood of a Korban that spilt and the Kohen gathered it from the floor, it is Pasul.

(b) The Tana is speaking when the blood - spilt before Kabalas ha'Dam.

(c) The Beraisa Darshens the Pasuk "Velakach ha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach mi'Dam ha'Par". The Tana interprets "Dam ha'Par" as Dam ha'Nefesh, in order to preclude - blood from the skin, and the final blood that trickles out after the spurting of the Dam ha'Nefesh is over ('Dam ha'Tamtzis').

(a) The Tana also Darshens "Ve'lakach Dam me'ha'Par" - by moving the 'Mem' from "mi'Dam" to "ha'Par" (a method which is called 'Gor'in u'Mosifin ve'Dorshin', which means that, under certain circumstances, it is possible to take a letter from one word and add it to another, and Darshen accordingly.

(b) He declines to Darshen simply "mi'Dam ha'Par", 'va'Afilu Miktzas Damo', because of Rav Yehudah Amar Rav - who learned from the Pasuk "ve'es Kol Dam ha'Par Yishpoch" that one must receive all the blood from the bull's neck.

(c) We query Rav's D'rashah however, on the grounds that the Pasuk "ve'es Kol Dam ha'Par Yishpoch" is written in connection with the Shirayim (the leftovers, after the sprinkling has already taken place), and we answer - that since it is not possible to explain it with regard to the Shirayim itself, we transfer it (as it were) 'Im Eino Inyan' to Kabalas ha'Dam.

(d) It cannot pertain to the pouring out of the Shirayim itself - seeing as some of the blood has already been used for the placing of the blood on the four corners of the Mizbe'ach (and "Kol ha'Dam" is no longer there).

(a) Based on the Pasuk "Velakach mi'Dam ha'Par", Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel requires whoever Shechts Kodshim to raise the far end of the knife upwards - to prevent the blood from dripping from the knife into the bowl (and we Darshen "mi'Dan ha'Par", 've'Lo mi'Dam ha'Par ve'Davar Acher').

(b) After Shechitas Kodshim, one wipes the knife clean the knife - on the edge of the bowl ...

(c) ... which explains why Ezra referred to the bowls with which they received the blood as "Kipurei Zahav" (since 'Kipurei' has connotations of 'wiping clean').

(d) When Rav Chisda Amar Rav Yirmiyah bar Aba said that the Shochet must place the blood vessels in the neck inside the bowl - he meant directly above its air-space (he cannot have meant what he said literally, because there is no way that one could fit the neck of a bull inside a regular bowl.




(a) Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan too, rules like Yirmiyah bar Aba. Rebbi Asi asked Rebbi Yochanan whether if the bottom of the bowl fell out before the blood reached its air-space - it is considered as if it was already lying in the vessel, even though it was not destined to do so, or not.

(b) Based on what we learned in our Mishnah (to differentiate between blood that spills directly from the bull's neck onto the floor and blood that that spills from the bowl), the ramifications of the She'eilah are - whether the Kohen is now permitted to scoop up the blood from the floor of the Azarah, or not.

(c) If the bottom of the bowl fell out *after* the blood had reached the bowl's air-space, but before it came to rest in the bowl - it would be considered as if it was already resting in the vessel.

(a) The Beraisa discusses a case where water is flowing via a pipe down a slope, into a barrel at the bottom of the slope that was not placed there for Kidush Mei Parah. The barrel - was not placed there to receive the water for Kidush Mei Parah (because if it had been, there would be no problem).

(b) The problem with the water is that if it is considered lying in the barrel, it is no longer 'Mayim Chayim' (spring water), and the Torah writes in Chukas (in connection with Mei Parah) "Mayim Chayim el Keli".

(c) Regarding the water that has not yet reached the level of the barrel, in a case where the barrel is ...

1. ... still a distance from the flowing water, the Tana invalidates the water for Mei Parah (because 'Mayim she'Sofo La'nu'ach ke'Munach Dami').
2. ... actually touching the pipe - he rules that it is permitted (since the water is still in the pipe, and cannot therefore be considered to be in the barrel).
(d) We explain the fact that Rebbi Asi asked about a case where the blood *was not destined to rest at the bottom of the bowl*, and Rebbi Yochanan answered him from a case where it *was* - by turning Rebbi Asi's She'eilah into two She'eilos. After the She'eilah that we cited, he added that even assuming that 'Avir she'Ein Sofo la'Nu'ach Ein ke'Munach Dami', what will be the Din in a case of 'Avir she'Sofo la'Nu'ach' (and that is the She'eilah that Rebbi Yochanan answered him).
(a) According to Rav Yosef, Rebbi Asi actually asked Rebbi Yochanan the Din of 'Chavis', and he answered him from the Beraisa. Whereas according to Rav Kahana, he asked him about Chavis, and he answered him from 'Mizrak' - from the fact that when one Shechts a Korban into the Mizrak, the blood does not just flow gently into the bowl, but squirts into different parts of it. Consequently, if 'Avir she'Sofo la'Nu'ach La'av ke'Munach Dami', it would not be considered straight from the bull into the bowl (See Tosfos DH 'Zos Omeres').

(b) The Mishnah in Parah rules that, in the case of Chavis (where the water was not flowing directly into the barrel and) where, in order to divert the flowing water into it, someone placed ...

1. ... his hand, his foot or vegetable leaves next to the barrel - the water is Pasul for Kidush Mei Parah.
2. ... cane leaves or the green, outer shell of a nut next to the barrel - it is Kasher, because whereas the former are subject to Tum'ah, the latter are not.
(c) The distinction is based on Rebbi Yochanan quoting Rebbi Yossi bar Aba's interpretation of the Pasuk in Shemini "Ach Ma'ayan u'Bor Mikveh Mayim Yih'yeh Tahor" - from which he extrapolates that a Mikvah or water that is needed for Kidush, must be prepared by using only things that are Tahor.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan proved from this Mishnah that 'Avir K'li ki'Cheli Dami' - because otherwise, bearing in mind that the water entered the vessel from the air, why should the water be Pasul in the Reisha? Why should it be any different that touching the water when it is ten Amos away from the barrel?

(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba tried to refute Rebbi Yochanan's proof - by suggesting that the Mishnah speaks when the water fell directly from his hand into the barrel, without falling through the air first (and we learned above, that whatever is within the walls of the vessel is definitely considered as if it is resting in the vessel).

(b) Rebbi Yochanan was not impressed with his Talmid's comment, and referred to him as 'Tarda' - which means 'a hasty fool'.

(c) He inferred from the Lashon of the Mishnah 'K'dei she'Ya'avru Mayim le'Chavis' - that the water flowed into the barrel from a distance (and not directly).

(d) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan cited the source of the Mishnah in Parah as Rebbi Tzadok, who testified in a Mishnah in Iduyos - that water that flowed over the green, outer shell of nuts is Kasher for Mei Parah.

(e) When such a case occurred in Ohalaya - it came before the Sanhedrin in the Lishkas ha'Gazis, who ruled that it was Kasher.

(a) Rebbi Zeira Amar Rebbi Yochanan learns that if a Kohen makes a notch in the ears of a bull of Kodshim before receiving its blood, it is Pasul - from the Pasuk "Ve'lakach mi'Dam ha'Par", implying that it must be the same unblemished bull at the time of Kabalah as at the time of Shechitah.

(b) This Pasuk refers to Kodshei Kodshim - and according to Rava's initial interpretation of a Beraisa, it pertains to Kodshim Kalim as well (as we shall now see).

(c) Rava cites a Beraisa which comments on the Pasuk ''Seh Tamim Zachar ben Shanah Yih'yeh Lachem". The Tana learns from "Yih'yeh" - that 'Tamim' and 'ben Shanah' extend to Kabalah, Holachah and Zerikah, too ...

(d) ... a proof that Rebbi Yochanan's ruling pertains to Kodshim Kalim as well.

(a) Abaye queries Rava however, from a Beraisa, where Rebbi Yehoshua - validates all Zevachim of which a k'Zayis of Basar or Cheilev remains at the time of the Zerikah.

(b) Bearing in mind that an animal of which only a k'Zayis Basar remains is the biggest Ba'al-Mum imaginable, this proves - that Kodshim Kalim do not need to be without blemish at the time of Kabalah, Holachah and Zerikah ...

(c) ... and when the Beraisa says ''be'Kabalah, be'Holachah, bi'Zerikah Minayin" - it is referring to 'ben Shanah' (which immediately precedes "Yih'yeh" in the Pasuk), but not to "Tamim".

(d) It is possible for an animal to be in its first year when it is Shechted, and one year old when its blood is taken to the Mizbe'ach and sprinkled - when we bear in mind that in the realm of Kodshim, we reckon the years, not only from the day that it is born, but from the time that it is born, too.

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