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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Zevachim 54

ZEVACHIM 54 (4 Av) - Dedicated by Mr. and Mrs. D. Kornfeld in honor of the Yahrzeit of Rivkah bas Elimelech Shmuel (Zelikovitz, nee Kornfeld), of Hungary/Haifa/Yerushalayim. Aunt Relly was a strong woman, who survived the holocaust and remained filled with Chesed and Ahavas Torah.



(a) The Beraisa describes the Avodah of the Olas ha'Of. The Kohen performed the Matnas Dam on the Mizbe'ach - by squeezing the blood on to the Keren.

(b) He performed the Avodah of the Olas ha'Of - next to the south-eastern Keren.

(c) If, as we just explained, the south-eastern Keren had no Yesod - then when he performed the Melikah there, the blood would simply drip on to the floor of the Azarah, which, at that point, was the territory of Yehudah (creating a problem in that the Avodah had to performed in the territory of the Toref).

(d) We cannot answer that the blood would anyway fall on to the Sovev, which is where he was standing when he performed the Mitzuy - because, we learned in a Mishnah that even if he squeezed it by his feet, up to one Amah below the Sovev, the Korban was Kasher.

(a) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak therefore explains that the Chachamim must have made a condition - that although the ground belonged to Yehudah, the air-space belonged to Binyamin ...

(b) ... and to avoid the blood dripping down on to the floor - they would construct a ledge jutting out from the Mizbe'ach, for the blood to drip on to (though not being joined to the ground, it would not have had the status of Yesod).

(c) Rav learns that apart from the one Amah in the east and the south, those two sides had no Yesod (as we have learned until now). According to Levi however - it had a Yesod, only it was not sanctified in order to sprinkle the blood on it.

(d) Rav quotes the Targum of "ba'Boker Yochal Ad" as 'be'Achsanteih Yisbanei Madb'cha (Makom Damim)', whereas Levi quotes it as - 'be'Achsantei Yisbanei Makd'sha' (meaning a 'location that is sanctified for placing the blood'), precluding Yehudah's territory from having a sanctified Yesod, but not from having a Yesod.

(a) Levi will explain the Mishnah in Midos (in connection with the Yesod) 'Ochel be'Darom Amah Achas u've'Mizrach Amah Achas' to mean - that the Yesod took up one Amah ... for placing the blood (which could not be placed on the rest of those two sides).

(b) And Rav explains that when the Mishnah there states 'ha'Mizbe'ach Hayah Sheloshim-u'Shetayim al Sheloshim-u'Shetayim' (implying that it was square) - the Tana is referring to the north and the west sides exclusively.

(a) The ...
1. ... ramp was - thirty-two Amos long.
2. ... the Mizbe'ach too - was thirty-two Amos long.
(b) To reconcile this with the Beraisa, which gives the combined length as sixty-two Amos, we answer 'Nimtza Pore'ach al Amah Yesod ve'al Amah Sovev', by which we mean - that the ramp overlapped the one Amah of Yesod and one Amah of the Sovev.

(c) This Beraisa poses a Kashya on Rav - inasmuch as it implies that the Mizbe'ach did have a Yesod.

(d) Rav will explain the Beraisa to mean - that the ramp overlapped the Amah of the Sovev and that of where the Yesod ought to have been.

(a) The Beraisa describes how the three sections of the Mizbe'ach, as well as the Amah al Amah Keranos were made. Their respective sizes were - thirty-two by thirty-two Amos by one Amah tall, thirty by thirty by five Amos tall, and twenty-eight by twenty-eight Amos by three Amos tall.

(b) They were formed - by means of three large, square wooden molds, which they filled with different size stones and grit, on to which they then poured lime, melted lead and pitch for binding.

(c) This Beraisa poses a Kashya on Rav - inasmuch as judging by the mold with which they constructed the Yesod, the Yesod seems to have encircled the Mizbe'ach.

(d) Rav cannot answer that they subsequently cut off the section of Yesod that was in Yehudah's territory - because the Mizbe'ach had to consist of complete stones, and not cut ones (nor would it be possible to dismantle some of it cleanly).




(a) Despite the shape of the mold, Rav explains, they avoided filling in Yehudah's portion - by placing a plank inside the mold to cover those sections of the floor of the Azarah that were in Yehudah's territory.

(b) And we prove it with a statement of Rav Kahana, who said, based on the Pasuk "u'Mal'u ke'Mizrak ke'Zaviyos Mizbe'ach" that the stones of the four Keranos - were holed 'like a bowl' deep down into the Mizbe'ach.

(c) The purpose of these holes - was for the Matnos Dam of the Chatas to drain (see Tosfos DH 'u'Mal'u' and the Ya'avetz).

(d) Given the fact that the Keranos were made in the same way as the other sections of the Mizbe'ach (as we explained), they made these holes (without actually boring a hole into them) - by placing thin sticks and hollow canes between the stones, to form a pipe, which they subsequently removed.

(a) The Pasuk writes "Vayeilech David u'Shmuel Va'yeishvu be'Noyos be'Ramah". Ramah - was Shmuel's home town.

(b) Noyos and Ramah are two different towns. So Rava explains "Noyos" in this context to mean - that David and Shmuel sat in Ramot to discuss matters concerning the most beautiful place in the world.

(c) They learn from the Pasuk "Ve'kamta Ve'alisa el ha'Makom" - that the Beis-Hamikdash was to be situated in the highest location in the world (since Eretz Yisrael is also the highest country in the world).

(a) The only tribes whose borders are clearly defined in Sefer Yehoshua are Yehudah and Binyamin.

(b) David and Shmuel worked out that the Makom Hamikdash was located in Yerushalayim - because it is in connection with it (the Yevusi) that the Pasuk in Yehoshua, instead of explaining how the border went up until it reached a peak, and then proceeded to go down (like it does regarding other areas) only speaks about ascending it from different directions.

(a) They originally intended to build the Beis-ha'Mikdash in Ein Itam, because it is even higher than Yerushalayim (or because that is where the Pasuk uses the expression of ascent [see next question]).

(b) Ein Itam (which is not mentioned in the Pasuk) is another name for the Spring of Mei Nefto'ach, which the Navi mentions after referring to the ascent from the valley of Gei ben Hinom (without mentioning descending at all).

(c) David and Shmuel changed their minds when they recalled the Pasuk in ...

1. ... "u'Vein Keseifav Shachein" - which means that Hashem dwells between the shoulder-blades (the nicest part of the ox, which is a little lower than the top [i.e. the head]), which is why they decided on Yerushalayim.
2. ... "u'Mechokek me'Bein Raglav" - which teaches us that the Sanhedrin had to sit in Yehudah's territory. That in turn, had to be situated in the Beis Hamikdash, as the Torah writes in Shoftim (in connection with a Zakein Mamrei) "Ve'kamta Ve'alisa el ha'Makom", which would not have possible had the Beis-ha'Mikdash been built in Ein Itam.
(d) Do'eg ha'Edomi's reaction to David's efforts to locate the Makom ha'Mikdash was - to become deeply jealous of him.
(a) The Pasuk in Tehilim describes - how David swore that he would not sleep or slumber until he located the Makom ha'Mikdash.

(b) In the same chapter, the Pasuk there writes "Hinei Shema'anuhah be'Efrasah, Metzanuhah bi'Sedei Ya'ar". By ...

1. ... "Efrasah" - the Pasuk is referring to Yehoshua, who came from Efrayim.
2. ... "Ya'ar" - it is referring to Binyamin, to whom Ya'akov referred to as a wolf (as we learned earlier).
(c) The Pasuk now means - that it is in Sefer Yehoshua, that David (and Shmuel) discovered where to build the Beis-ha'Mikdash (in the portion of Binyamin).
(a) Our Mishnah discusses the remaining Kodshei Kodshim. 'Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur' are - the the two lambs that are brought as a Shalmei Tzibur on Shavu'os.

(b) An ...

1. ... Asham Shifchah Charufah is - the Korban that a man who has relations with a Shifchah Cana'anis who has been half set free and who is betrothed to an Eved Ivri.
2. ... Asham Nazir - is one of the Korbanos that a Nazir who became Tamei Meis must bring before beginning his period of Nezirus all over again.
(c) Like the Olah, these Korbanos all require Tzafon regarding the Shechitah and the Kabalas ha'Dam. Unlike the Olah however - they are eaten by male Kohanim, in the Azarah, as any kind of food and until the first midnight.
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