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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Zevachim 75

ZEVACHIM 75 (25 Av)- dedicated by Mrs. G. Kornfeld for the third Yahrzeit of her mother, Mrs. Gisela Turkel (Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer), an exceptional woman with an iron will who loved and respected the study of Torah.



(a) We learned in our Mishnah 'Kodshim be'Kodshim Miyn be'Miyno, Zeh Yikrav le'Shem Mi she'Hu ... '. To evade the problem of Semichah (which must be performed by the owner and by nobody else) - Rav Yosef establishes the Mishnah by Korbanos belonging to women.

(b) The Beraisa discusses a Korban Yachid that became mixed up with another Korban Yachid or with a Korban Tzibur, or a Korban Tzibur that became mixed up with another Korban Tzibur. The Tana is referring to - Chata'os.

(c) A Chatas Yachid (which is generally a female) can become mixed up with a Chatas Tzibur (which is a male) - if it is the Chatas of a Nasi (which is a Sa'ir).

(a) Initially, the Kohen should - place four Matanos for each Korban.

(b) In a case where the Kohen placed one Matanah for each Korban, or four Matanos ('Shetayim she'Hein Arba [see Shitah Mekubetzes']) for all the Korbanos (See Rashash) - the Korbanos are nevertheless Kasher.

(c) If the mix-up occurs after the animals have been Shechted (meaning that the blood got mixed up in the cups) - then even Lechatchilah, it is not necessary to place four Matanos for each Korban.

(d) Rebbi qualifies the latter ruling - by restricting it to where there is sufficient blood for each Korban.

(a) We try to prove that the Beraisa is talking about the Korbenos Yachid of men (and not of women) - because - just as Tzibur refers to men, so too, does Yachid.

(b) This poses a Kashya on Rav Yosef - because the Korbenos Yachid require Semichah, which is not possible to perform (in which case, according to his previous statement, the Korbanos ought to be Pasul).

(c) The Kashya is only from Korban Yachid and not from Korban Tzibur - since a Korban Tzibur does not require Semichah in the first place.

(d) We know that the Tana is not referring to the Chatas Penimiyos of the Tzibur, which does require Semichah - whereas the Chata'os ha'Penimiyos require seven plus one, as we have already learned.

(a) We counter this Kashya by querying the very Beraisa. The problem with the Seifa ' ... Aval Nis'arvu Shechutin Lo' is - the fact it is only if the blood became mixed up in the same cup that it does not require four Matanos for each Chatas Lechatchilah, but if it got mixed up in different cups, then it does, as if the animals became mixed up before the Shechitah (even though it happened after the Shechitah [so how can the Tana differentiate between before the Shechitah and after it]).

(b) When we therefore establish the Mishnah by 'Shechutin ke'Ein Chayim' we mean - that the Tana is speaking about a case (not that took place before the Shechitah, but) after the Shechitah, only the blood became mixed up in separate cups (which has the same Din as becoming mixed up before the Shechitah.

(c) This answers the Kashya - in that Semichah must have taken place before the Shechitah, and was therefore no longer necessary at the time when the bloods became mixed up.

(a) Rebbi in our Mishnah requires sufficient blood for each animal. In a Beraisa, Rebbi cites Rebbi Eliezer, who maintains that a 'Kol she'Hu' of the Eifer ha'Parah will suffice for the sprinkling of a Tamei Meis - because he says, Haza'ah does not have a Shiur.

(b) And when he adds 'Haza'ah Mechtzah Kasher u'Mechtzah Pasul', he is coming to teach us - that even if it is mixed with Pasul ingredients, the Haza'ah is nevertheless valid.

(c) The first answer to this apparent contradiction in Rebbi is that although, in the latter Beraisa, he cites Rebbi Eliezer, he does not hold like him. The second answer is - that one cannot compare the ashes of the Parah Adumah, which do not have a Shiur, with the blood of a Chatas, which does ...

(d) ... in order for the blood to appear on the two adjacent sides of the Mizbe'ach (though it is unclear why this should be necessary there where the Kohen places one or four Matanos).




(a) We have already learned that a Bechor cannot be redeemed, nor may the Kohen sell it by weight. Rami bar Chama adds here - that the Kohen may not feed it to a woman who is a Nidah.

(b) He asks - whether these three Halachos will extend to the Temurah of a Bechor.

(c) Rava resolves Rami bar Chama's She'eilah from a Beraisa, where after stating that Bechor and Ma'aser that became blemished may not be weighed (when it is sold), the Tana adds - that the same applies to the Bechor's Temurah.

(a) A Kohen is permitted to declare a Bechor, Hekdesh Bedek ha'Bayis - provided it obtains a blemish.

(b) Rami bar Chama asked whether, if the Kohen did so, the Bechor could be weighed. This might be different than a regular sale - since the benefits of the sale go to Hekdesh (as opposed to the owner).

(c) On the other hand, it might be forbidden, like a regular sale - assuming that the criterion is (not who benefits from the sale, but) the fact that it is degrading for a Bechor to be sold in this way.

(a) We learned in our Mishnah 'Nis'arvu bi'Vechor u've'Ma'aser, Yir'u ad she'Yista'avu ve'Ye'achlu ki'Vechor u'che'Ma'aser'. Rebbi Yossi bar Z'vida tries to prove from there - that all the Chumros of Bechor apply in Rami bar Chama's case as well.

(b) Rav Huna and Rebbi Chizkiyah, the Talmidim of Rebbi Yirmiyah however, repudiate this proof - on the grounds that our Mishnah is speaking about two different animals (and it stands to reason that the fact that one animal is an Olah or a Shelamim, will not detract from the status of the second animal which is a Bechor), whereas Rami bar Chama is speaking when the one animal incorporates two 'Kedushos', where one Kedushah might well override the other.

(c) When Rebbi Yossi bar Avin argues that if the Kohen wanted to redeem the Bechor in question, would they listen to him, he is trying to prove - that by the same token, they will not listen to him if he wants to sell it by weight (since both are forbidden).

(d) We object to this proof however - on the grounds that whereas redeeming a Bechor is Asur mi'd'Oraysa (which cannot be overruled), selling it by weight is only an Isur mi'de'Rabbanan, which, under certain circumstances, the Chachamim may have waived.

(e) Rebbi Ami finally resolves the She'eilah - on the basis of the S'vara that a person can only give away something that he has. Consequently, since the Kohen was not permitted to sell the Bechor by weight, Bedek ha'Bayis, who received it from him, cannot do so either.

(a) Our Mishnah lists Chatas and Asham as the only two Korbanos that cannot become mixed up, and we query this from a number of other cases. The Tana not include Chatas and Olah - because of the Chatas Nasi, which is also a male animal.

(b) The Tana nevertheless lists Chatas and Asham, (despite the fact that Chatas Nasi and Asham are also both male animals) - because whereas (unlike the Pesach) the former is a goat (which does not have wool), the latter is a ram, which does.

(c) The Tana does not add Pesach and Asham to the list - seeing as the former is in its first year, whereas the latter is in its second.

(d) We answer that some Ashamos also come in their first year - namely, Asham Nazir and Asham Metzora, by which the Torah writes "Keves", just like a Pesach.

(a) Rebbi Shimon in our Mishnah rules that if an Asham becomes mixed up with a Shelamim, they must both be Shechted in the north of the Azarah, and eaten with the Chumros of an Asham. The Chachamim disagree with this - on the basis of the principle that one is forbidden to detract from the time that the Torah allocates for eating a Korban (two days for a Shelamim) ...

(b) ... in case one does not manage to eat it in time, resulting in the Kodshim having to be burned.

(c) According to them - one lets them graze in the field until they become blemished, sells them and with the proceeds, one purchases an Asham and a Shelamim.

(d) In a case where pieces of Asham got mixed up with pieces of Shelamim, the Chachamim concede - that they must be eaten with all the Chumros of the Asham, since there is no alternative.

(a) A Beraisa expert quoted a Beraisa in front of Rav, prohibiting the purchase of Terumah with Shevi'is money - because it detracts from the time that one would otherwise be permitted to eat the Terumah.

(b) The Rabbanan commented in front of Rabah that this Beraisa does not conform with all opinions - because according to Rebbi Shimon, it ought to be permitted.

(c) Rabah reconciles the Beraisa with Rebbi Shimon - by restricting his ruling to Bedieved (after the two Korbanos became mixed up), but not Lechatchilah (to permit initially buying Terumah with Shevi'is money).

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