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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Zevachim 88

ZEVACHIM 88 - Dedicated by Dr. and Mrs. Moshe & Rivka Snow of Queens, N.Y., in memory of Rabbis Israel Snow and Baruch Mayer Rabinowitz -- both of whose Yahrzeits are 8 Elul.



(a) Our Mishnah rules 'K'lei ha'Lach Mekadshin es ha'Lach; Midos ha'Yavesh Mekadshos es ha'Yavesh'. The K'lei ha'Lach comprised - dishes and bowls, for the blood, the wine and the oil.

(b) There were two Midos ha'Yavesh - an Isaron (to measure the flour for the Menachos) and a half Isaron (to divide the Isaron of the Chavitei Kohen Gadol into two, half to be brought in the morning and half, in the afternoon [see Tosfos DH 'Midos').

(c) The Tana refers to them as 'Midos ha'Yavesh', and not 'K'lei ha'Yavesh' - because that is all they were used for (since the Minchah would be placed in a Kli Lach).

(d) The Tana states - that dry Kodshim could not be sanctified in K'lei ha'Lach, and vice-versa.

(a) If a K'li Shareis became holed, the criterion for rendering it Pasul is - that it can no longer be used for its original purpose.

(b) A K'li Shareis will not sanctify what one places inside it - anywhere but inside the Azarah.

(a) Shmuel qualifies the Halachah 'Ein K'lei ha'Lach Mekadshin es ha'Yavesh' - by confining it to Midos ha'Lach (but not to other K'lei Lach).

(b) His reason for this is - because they were not really fit to be used for dry things, and were therefore specifically designated for measuring Lach.

(c) He learns this from the Pasuk "Sheneihem Melei'im So'les" - since the Mizrak mentioned there is a K'li Lach, yet they brought the Minchah in it.

(d) There were - seven Midos ha'Lach in the Beis-Hamikash.

(a) Rav Acha queries Shmuel's proof from the Pasuk - seeing as the Minchah did after all, contain oil (in which case, it cannot be described entirely as dry).

(b) We answer this Kashya in two ways. One of them, that the proof is from those parts of the Minchah that remained dry even after it had been mixed with the oil; the other - that the Minchah in general, is considered a dry Korban, compared to the blood.

(a) When Shmuel says that K'lei Shareis only sanctifies ...
1. ... 'Sh'leimin, he means - that it only sanctifies what is placed inside it, as long as it is complete (but not if it has a hole).
2. ... 'Melei'in', he means - that it only sanctifies the full Shiur (an Isoron or a Log), but not part of it.
3. ... 'mi'Tochan', he means - that the object must be inside the K'li (and not protruding from it).
(b) Others replace 'mi'Tochan' with 'bi'Fenim', which means inside the Azarah. The difference between the two Leshonos is - 'Birutzei Midos' (meaning whatever is heaped up above the level of the vessel, which is not sanctified, according to the first Lashon, but which is, according to the second Lashon.

(c) The Beraisa - inserts both 'mi'Tochan' and 'bi'Fenim' in the list.

(d) Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan qualifies the Din of 'Melei'in', and what's more, his opinion has the support of Rebbi Yossi in a Beraisa. According to Rebbi Yochanan - a K'li Shareis will sanctify even less that the full Shi'ur that one places inside it - provided one has the intention of adding the rest later.

(a) Rav (or Rav Asi) maintains that when our Mishnah rules 'Ein K'li ha'Lach Mekadesh Yavesh', and vice-versa, it means 'Likareiv' (to bring on the Mizbe'ach), but it does sanctify it 'Lipaseil' - meaning that it becomes Pasul be'Yotzei or if it is touched by a T'vul-Yom or a Mechusar Kipurim.

(b) Others quote Rav with regard to the Beraisa 'Ein Mevi'in Menachos u'Nesachim, u'Minchas Beheimah u'Bikurim min ha'Meduma'. 'Meduma' is - Chulin into which Terumah fell.

(c) In spite of the fact that Meduma is permitted to a Kohen, (and that the above are given to Kohanim anyway), one cannot bring Korbanos from it - because of the Pasuk in Yechezkel "mi'Mashkeh Yisrael" (from which we learn that Korbanos may only be brought from whatever is fit for a Yisrael to eat).

(a) The Tana then adds - that how much more so can one not bring the above 'Korbanos' from Orlah or K'lai ha'Kerem.

(b) And in the event that one brought the 'Korban' from any of the above - it is Pasul even Bedieved.

(c) According to the second Lashon, Rav (or Rav Asi) now comments on the Beraisa - that although the 'Korban' is not sanctified to go on the Mizbe'ach, it is sanctified to become Pasul (and must be burned, since it cannot be redeemed).

(d) Rav's ruling does not pertain to Bikurim - because they are sanctified by being placed inside a K'li Shareis.

(a) The Beraisa forbids ...
1. ... welding a broken K'li Shareis, sealing a hole with lead or straightening a large dent in it.
2. ... repairing a knife which is a K'li Shareis that became notched or that broke away from the handle.
(b) The reason for these Chumros is - because it is degrading to demonstrate poverty in a place of wealth (in the King's palace), where broken things are generally thrown out and replaced.

(c) Aba Shaul speaks about a knife that was at one stage being used in the Beis-Hamikdash which rendered the animals T'reifah - because it contained a lot of tiny notches.

(d) The Kohanim eventually - hid it in Genizah ('Sheimos').

(a) The Beraisa describes the Bigdei Kehunah. The Tana learns from the Pasuk "Ma'aseh Oreig" - that they must be woven and not hand-stitched.

(b) If a garment became dirty, says the Tana, they did not wash it with Neser or Ohel (various types of detergents) - and certainly not with plain water, which would not clean it as thoroughly as a detergent.

(c) Abaye therefore explains that the Beraisa - specifically mentions 'Neser' and 'Ohel' (not to preclude washing it in water, but) to describe the extent of the dirt (i.e. that it requires washing in detergent.

(d) Consequently, Bigdei Kehunah that are ...

1. ... very dirty - may not be washed, even in water.
2. ... slightly dirty (meaning that water will suffice to clean it) - may be washed even using detergents.
(e) 'Yesh Omrim' say - that one may not wash Bigdei Kehunah at all (because of the S'vara 'Ein Aniyus be'Makom Ashirus').



(a) We learned in a Beraisa that the Kohen Gadol's Me'il was made entirely of Techeiles (a dark blue wool). For the hem however, they brought Techeiles, Argaman (purple wool) and Tola'as Shani (crimson wool) - with which they made woolen pomegranates.

(b) When the Tana describes the pomegranates as ...

1. ...'Rimonim she'Lo Pischu', he means - 'like pomegranates that have not yet begun to split open'.
2. ... ''Kuna'os shel K'nasos she'be'Roshei Tinokos', he means - the cones or peaks of helmets worn by children.
(c) They also suspended seventy-two golden bells on the hem (thirty-two on either side) - inside which there were seventy-two strikers.

(d) Beside each pomegranate, they suspended a bell.

(a) According to Rebbi Dosa in the name of Rebbi Yehudah, they suspended thirty-six bells on the hem of the Me'il (eighteen on either side).

(b) Likewise, says Rebbi Anani bar Sason, Tana'im argue over the number of sightings of Tzara'as. Rebbi Dosa ben Horkinas says thirty-six (like he says here), incorporating - Tzara'as of the skin, of the place of a boil or burn, of the head or the beard, of the clothes and of the house.

(c) Akavya ben Mahalalel says - seventy-two.

(a) Rebbi bar Sason comments - that the Torah juxtaposes the Parshah of Korbanos to that of the Bigdei Kehunah - to teach us that the latter atone for our sins just like the former do.

(b) In this connection, we learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Va'yishchat'u Se'ir Izim, Va'yitbelu es ha'Kutones ba'Dam" - that the Kutones (the undershirt) atones for murder.
2. ... "Va'asei Lahem Michnesei Bad Lechasos B'sar Ervah" - that the pants atone for adultery
3. ... "Ve'asisa Choshen Mishpat" - that the Choshen (the breastplate) atone for pervert justice.
4. ... "Ein Eifod u'Terafim" - that the Eifod (apron) atones for Avodah-Zarah.
(c) Rebbi Chanina learns that ...
1. ... the Mitznefes (the turban) atones for haughtiness - from the location where it was worn (on top of the head).
2. ... the belt atones for impure thoughts - from the location where it was worn (near the heart).
3. ... the Me'il atones for Lashon ha'Ra - 'Let the garment which makes a noise come and atone for the sin which is based on the voice.
(d) From the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Ve'hayah al Metzach Aharon" (in connection with the Tzitz) "u'Metzach Ishah Zonah Hayah Lach", we learn - that the Tzitz atones for Chutzpah..
(a) According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, Shefichas Damim and Lashon ha'Ra are unique, inasmuch as - they are the only two sins that are atoned for outside the realm of Korbanos

(b) According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, the Eglah Arufah atones for Shefichas Damim, and the Ketores - for Lashon ha'Ra.

(c) We learn this latter Halachah from a Beraisa cited by Rebbi Chananya, which quotes the Pasuk "Vayiten es ha'Ketores Vayechaper al ha'Am" - where the people accused Moshe and Aharon of having killed 'the people of Hashem' (i.e. the congregation of Korach).

(d) Ketores atones for Lashon ha'Ra - because, just as Lashon ha'Ra is spoken secretly, so too, is the Ketores, brought secretly (i.e. nobody is allowed in the vicinity of the Heichal when the Kohen brings it).

(a) We resolve the discrepancy between Rebbi Anani bar Sason, who learns that ...
1. ... the Kutones atones for Shefichas Damim, and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who ascribes the Kaparah to the Eglah Arufah - by establishing the former by a case where the identity of the murderer is known, and the latter, where it is not.
2. ... the Me'il atones for Lashon ha'Ra, and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who ascribes it to the Ketores - by establishing the former by Lashon ha'Ra that was spoken publicly, and the latter, by Lashon ha'Ra that was spoken discreetly (though it is unclear how that can be said about the people's accusation of Moshe and Aharon, which is the source for this Limud).
(b) The Torah writes that if a murder takes place, and the people deliberately fail to bring the murderer to justice - ''the land will not receive atonement".

(c) Nevertheless, the Kutones atones for murder, where the identity of the murderer is known, as we just explained - in a case where there are no Kasher witnesses (or there was no warning).

***** Hadran Alach 'ha'Mizbe'ach Mekadesh' *****

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